Throughout the world, there are many different Chinese communities, each with their own unique histories and cultures. These communities can be found throughout Canada, Africa, and Latin America. However, one of the most important communities in the world is the Chinese community in Oceania.
People of Chinese origin in Canada
Despite the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1923, Chinese immigrants in Canada have faced many social injustices. These immigrants faced isolation from their family, low pay, and difficulties learning the language. These immigrants were barred from working in many professions, including government, and underground coal mines.
The Chinese immigration tax, or head tax, was instituted in 1885 and 1923. It was designed to slow the growth of Chinese immigration to Canada. Some groups were exempt from the tax, while others were subject to it. However, it did not have a dramatic impact on the number of Chinese immigrants coming to Canada.
Chinese Canadians fought for their rights to full citizenship and political participation in Canada. They formed governing associations to protect their interests. Some of these associations included the Chinese Professionals Association of Canada (CPAC) and the Chinese Benevolent Associations.
Many Chinese Canadians contributed to the war effort during World War II. Some of them died in France on the Western Front.
People of Chinese origin in Oceania
Historically, people of Chinese origin have played an important role in Oceania. These people were descendants of expansion from East and Southeast Asia. In the 19th century, Chinese businesses helped to drive growth in Melbourne and Sydney. During World War II, over 200 Chinese people fought for Australia.
China’s policy towards Oceania is part of its larger outreach to the developing world. Its interest in the South Pacific has grown significantly. It has sought military bases in Fiji and Vanuatu. It has also challenged Western telecommunications systems through Chinese company Huawei. Various benefits and drawbacks have emerged from China’s growing presence in Oceania.
The South Pacific is home to many emerging countries. In recent years, the region’s economic growth has been high. However, the region is also indebted. Many countries rely on migration as a way to compensate for low birth rates. Similarly, some countries experience temporary bursts of tourist arrivals. These trends are similar to those seen during the Cold War.
People of Chinese origin in Africa
During South Africa’s period of international isolation, Chinese migrants filled a niche. They came from all over China looking for a chance to work. The first wave of Chinese immigrants came to work in the mining industry. They left behind a legacy. But today, as South Africa’s economy slows down, many Chinese residents have decided to move on.
Xi Jinping’s current trip to South Africa shows that China and Africa’s relationship is growing. But while China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) promises riches, it also carries many cracks.
China surpassed Europe as Africa’s largest trading partner last year. But Chinese investment in South Africa has been growing more slowly. And anti-Chinese sentiment is on the rise. That’s according to Romain Dittgen, urban studies researcher at Wits University.
In late 2010, the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce in Africa was formed. Its office is located in Jo’burg’s Chinatown. Its chairman, Wang Longshui, has lived in Africa for many years and has traveled to at least a dozen African countries. He says the Belt and Road Initiative will enhance trade links with China.
People of Chinese origin in Latin America
Despite its modest presence, the Chinese community in Latin America has contributed significantly to the region’s economy. Many Chinese immigrants set up successful businesses in each of the countries in the region. The Chinese community is also notable for its hard work ethic.
Chinese immigration has been significant in many Latin American countries, and China’s presence has expanded in the region in the past three decades. The Chinese government’s relationship with Latin America has been driven by economic factors. Many Latin Americans hope that Chinese investments will help develop the economies of their countries. Some in the region fear that China will replace the United States as an economic partner. In fact, some in Latin America see China as an alternative to the traditional political influence of the United States.
In the last decade, China has been making significant investments in the Latin American region. China’s government has outlined a strategy to invest double the amount of money it spent in Latin America in the next decade. The Chinese government has also established over 30 Confucius Institutes in Latin America, which have played an important role in promoting Chinese culture.