Cultural heritage is a tangible heritage asset. This includes monuments, artefacts and museums. It is inherited from the past generation, and is a product of selection by the society. There are many threats to cultural heritage, and it is important to protect it.
Artefacts of cultural heritage are an important part of the historical record. The process of archaeological excavation involves the discovery and collection of artefacts. A number of factors affect the preservation of such objects. These include environmental conditions, biological pests, and structural defects. Therefore, preventive care is crucial.
As a result, understanding the mechanisms of corrosion on artefacts is of utmost importance. Such knowledge is particularly useful for restoration and conservation. In particular, it is essential to understand the long-term mechanisms of corrosion of metallic artefacts.
The first steps towards this are to identify bacterial communities present on museum artefacts. The presence of bacteria on an object indicates a potential source of biodeterioration. Bacteria can produce chemical and mechanical damage.
Several methods are employed to determine bacterial diversity. One method is the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. It is a statistically significant approach to quantify bacterial diversity. This method is relatively new and has a variety of advantages.
Cultural heritage is a set of values that are embedded in human history and culture. These values include scientific, artistic, ethnological, ritual, and immaterial elements. Some examples of these are monuments, artifacts, museums, and historical buildings.
One of the main goals of UNESCO is to promote international cooperation, as well as the preservation of cultural assets. The organization has adopted international conventions on protection of world natural heritage and cultural heritage.
Monuments in cultural heritage refer to buildings, sculptures, and other physical objects that are representative of a specific culture. They are also associated with specific events, and can carry a message.
For example, an Ottoman hammam is considered a listed monument, because it contains rare decorative and morphological elements. It is located in the village of Mournies, Chania, in Crete.
Cultural heritage museums are important institutions that study, document, and protect the cultural and historical values of a country. They provide a safe, interactive place for people to explore the past. These institutions also play an important role in shaping the future of the world.
Museums are non-profit, permanent institutions that serve society. Their mission is to preserve and interpret the tangible and intangible aspects of culture, history, and the environment. In addition, they provide a forum for learning and exchange of ideas.
These museums are often located near historic sites. They may feature re-creations of buildings and occupations from a certain time period, or they could be more experimental archaeology centers. Many museums have educational programs for schools. Some offer free admission to the public.
Special collections of cultural heritage can be found in a number of forms. These include manuscripts, photographs, books, archives and museums. They can be used for a wide variety of purposes. However, these institutions often have static budgets and limited resources. Consequently, it is important to determine the value of such collections to the institution’s overall mission.
This is a challenging task. The special collections communities have been involved in numerous efforts to identify metrics that measure the value of such collections. Achieving this goal requires the diffusion of various types of metrics.
One example is the NISO Z39.7 standard, which is the gate count for a week’s worth of visits. Most special collections follow this standard. It is also possible to monitor retrieval times using an internal electronic paging system.
Threats to cultural heritage
The destruction of cultural heritage is a global problem. It is caused by both man-made and natural factors.
Man-made threats include climate change, conflict, economic growth, and resource extraction. Natural events such as extreme weather events, droughts, flash floods, and storms are also a threat.
These factors, along with human neglect and criminal looting, can lead to the degradation of cultural objects. Some possible reasons for degradation include air pollution, salt crystallization in porous walls, and metal corrosion.
Several studies have been conducted to identify possible coastal threats to cultural heritage sites. For example, studies have investigated the threat of sea level rise to Venice, Durban, Mombasa, and southern Africa.
Other studies have assessed threats to cultural heritage in areas such as France, Corsica, the United States, and the Mediterranean. These include the destruction of archaeological sites by the Islamic State and religious fundamentalist groups.